Colorectal surgery is often the recommended course of treatment for certain diseases such as colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, intestinal blockage due to scar tissue, ulcerative colitis that does not respond to medication, traumatic injuries and polyps. Polyps are a small cluster of cells that form on the lining of the colon or the large intestine. Most polyps are not cancerous and are simply a result of abnormal cell growth, but some can gradually turn into colon cancer, so regular screening and removal of all polyps is important.
Prior to colorectal surgery, the colon may need to be cleaned with an enema or oral agent. Then, the patient is put under general anesthesia. A series of small incisions are made in the abdomen through which an endoscope and surgical instruments are inserted. Working through these tiny incisions with the help of the endoscopic camera, the surgeon removes the diseased intestine and sews the remaining ends together. The incisions are then stitched closed. After undergoing colorectal surgery, most patients return home within a week. Full recovery generally takes up to two months.